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Chronology of Early Arab/Muslim invasions
History of India as told by its own historians, Eliot and Dowson, Low Price Publications, Delhi, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 113 ---
Chapter II -- Futuhu-l Buldan of Ahmad ibn Yahya Ibn Jabir Al Buldan
Excerpts about chronology of invasions of India by Muslims:
1. Khalif Umar appointed Usman to Bahrain and Oman in the year 15 AH (636 CE). Usman sent his brother Hakam to Bahrain and himself went to Oman and dispatched an army to Tane. The army returned without success. From description it seems lot of men were killed.
2. Hakam then despatched a force to Barauz (Broach)
3. Hakam also sent a force to Bay of Debal with his brother Mughaira who met and defeated the enemy -- no further details are given.
4. When Usman became Khalif (the third Khalif) he sent a person to the confines of Hind to investigate. He reported: "Water is scarce, the fruits are poor, and the robbers are bold; if troops are sent there they sure will be slain, if many, they will starve."
Usman asked if he spoke accurately or hyperbolically. He said he spoke according to his knowledge. No expedition was taken.
5. At the end of year 38AH and beginning of 39AH (659 CE) Khalif Ali sent Haras to the frontier as a volunteer. He was victorious, got plunder, made captives and distributed in one day a thousand heads. He and those who were with him were slain, saving a few, in the land Kikan, on the border of Khurasan. Kikan is in Sind.
6. Year 44 AH (664 CE) Khalif Muawiya sent Muhallab son of Abu Safra went to the same frontier and went as far as Banna and Alawhar (Lahore). The enemy opposed him and killed him and his followers.
7. In the reign of Muwaiya, son of Abu Safain, another expedition was sent to the frontier of Hind. He fought in Kikan and captured booty. Went back and presented to Muwaiya some Kikan horses. Returned to Kikan, when the Turks called their forces together and slew him.
(Note: I am not sure what is meant by the Turks here? Sometimes the residents of Tibet were called Turks. I am not sure if these Turks are the same as the Turks from Turkey. Explanation from knowledgeable sources will be appreciated.)
8. In the reign of the same Muwaiya Sinan was sent as the head of another expedition. He captured Makaran and established his power there. Date is not given.
9. Ziyad then appointed Rashid s/o Umru-l Judaidi to the frontier. Was victorious against Kikan but was slain while fighting against the Meds. Sinan s/o Salama took charge and remained there for two years.
10. Abbas s/o Ziyad then went to the frontier of Hind by way of Sijistan. He went to Kandahar and subdued the country but many Muslims perished.
11. Ziyad next appointed Al Manzar to the frontiers of India. He attacked and conquered Nukam and Kikan. The Muslims obtained great plunder and their forces spread all over the country. He conquered Kusdar and took prisoners there. Sinan had taken it before but "the inhabitants had been guilty of defection."
12. The governor Ubaidullah, s/o Ziyad then appointed Harri al Bahali. He subdued the country and plundered them. The people of Nukan are now Muhameddans. He built a city called Al Baiza (the white).
13. When Al Hajjaj was governor of Irak, Said s/o Aslam was appointed to Makran and its frontiers. He was opposed and was slain there by Mawaiya and Muhammad, sons of Haras and Alafi.
14. Hajjaj then appointed Mujja to the frontier. He made war upon, plundered and defeated the tribes around Kandabil, and this conquest was completed by Muhammad, s/o al Kasim.
15. Hajjaj apointed Muhammad s/o Harun. At this time occurred the event of some pirated kidnapped some women going from Ceylon to Arabia which the Muslims justify as the cause for the next invasion of Debal, the capital of King Dahir.
16. First Hajjaj sent Ubaidullah against Debal. He was killed.
17. Hajjaj then directed Budail to proceed to Debal. When he arrived his horse took fright and threw him, and the enemy killed him. Some say he was killed by the Jats of Budha.
18. After wards Hajjaj during the Khilafat of Walid s/o Abdul Malik appointed Muhammad son of Kasim to command on the Sindian frontier.
The invasion of Muhammad bin Kasim is whole new chapter and will not be discussed here.
The above chronology is presented here to show that the attack by Muhammad bin Kasim was not the first attack by the Arabs and Muslims on India. They kept on coming back again and again till they finally established a foot hold in India.
This is for information of the group -- those who might be interested in it.